Newspaper Location clarification

I'd like some clarification around the citing of newspapers related to place of publication, specifically in first reference notes.

Looking at EE 14.11 for newspapers:  Location is required. When a paper carries either a city or state in its masthead title (but not both), put the missing place name in parentheses within the title. If the title carries no place name, add a place name in parentheses, setting the added material in italics also. 

I definitely understand that the location helps to provide clarity as there are many cities with the same name located in different states, or many newspapers with the same generic title. I understand the examples provided in EE, but naturally I come up with examples that I'm not certain how to address. I'm an EE novice, but very happy to work with this level of detail, just hoping to find the pattern to help me move ahead.

My first example is The State from Columbia, South Carolina. There is no place name in the title, so I definitely need to add a place name in parentheses. I'm not sure if I put city and state or just state. My best guess would be both city and state after the title. The State (Columbia, South Carolina)

My second example is The Oregonian from Portland, Oregon. The title obviously refers to Oregon, but Oregonian itself is not a place name. Is it necessary to include Portland? I suppose there's no harm in adding parentheses for clarification, but it doesn't seem necessary because the title is unique.

My third example is The North Wales Express from Carnarvon, Wales. North Wales is a general region, obviously in Wales. It's not a city or a state, (and maybe the city or state mention is unique to US newspapers) but it is a place name of sorts. Is it necessary to include Carnarvon? I wouldn't think so, similar to The Oregonian example above.

Thanking you very kindly in advance for your expertise,



Submitted byEEon Sun, 06/06/2021 - 08:19

Welcome to EE, Jennifer!

In all three of your instances, the city and state of publication should be identified—as with the Red River Republican example in EE 14.22 ("Newspaper Articles"). To put it another way:

  • If the title of the newspaper identifies the city, but not the state, we add the state name in parentheses.
  • If the title of the newspaper identifies the state but not the city, then we add the city name in parentheses.
  • If the title of the newspaper identifies neither, then we add both.

The exception would be a paper such as New York TImes, Washington Post, so well known internationally that further explication is not needed.

Submitted byjrainon Sun, 06/06/2021 - 09:53

Thank you ever so much for the welcome and the clarity. Now I'm able to move ahead, with caution, but more confidence!