Congressional testimony

So here's one that's slightly different, i need to cite congressional testimony, from 2005. The text isn't available at the library of congress, but i have my prepared remarks. So here's my go at this:

Source List

United States. Congress. House Armed Services Committee. Archived website. Library of Congress.  Web Archives. 2005. : 2020.


U. S. Congress, House Armed Services Committee, 109th Congress (2005), “The Asymmetric and Unconventional Threats Panel”, 27 October 2005 9am, testimony on Cyber Security, Information Assurance and Information Superiority, David Grawrock witness; archived website, Library of Congress, Library of Congress Web Archives, 2005, : accessed 29 March 2020); prepared remarks in possession of the author David Grawrock.

The first part indicates the committee, panel, and topic, then witness. The second layer indicates where the library is maintaining the web archive, the third layer indicates i have the prepared remarks as submitted to the committee.

Submitted byEEon Mon, 03/30/2020 - 13:02

David, you definitely found something that’s not in EE, though EE does have equivalents to guide us through the parts of your complex citation. Incidentally, you’ve also done a great job of sorting out what should go in each layer, but a few things are fuzzy. There's a lot packed into that first layer and the formatting and arrangement will leave most readers confused. Let’s begin by analyzing the most basic parts: author and title. In the Full Reference Note

  • The author is said to be the U.S. Congress.
  • There are two titles within this layer that carry italics (presumably titles because they are italicized).
  • There is one title within this layer that carries quotation marks (ditto).

Going back to the basic rules of citation at EE 2.68:

  • Italics mean that the work is published, and it's published as a standalone entity (e.g., a book, a website, a journal, a music album, an individually published map, etc.)
  • Quotation marks around a title means that it is an unpublished paper (a manuscript) or it is part of a larger standalone publication whose title is in italics (a chapter in a book, an article in a journal, etc.)

If I understand your intent correctly, you authored a paper titled “Cyber Security, Information Assurance and Information Superiority,” which was presented at a House Armed Services Committee hearing as part of a panel identified as the Asymmetric and Unconventional Threats Panel.

Within this framework, you are the author, not Congress. Congress did not write your words, your thoughts, your opinions. Your paper itself has not been published, but a copy is available from you. That’s the basis for your Layer 1.

Your oral presentation was taped and distributed/published online. That individual tape, which is one small part of a much larger standalone publication (the website) is the basis for your Layer 2.

To summarize what you see in the QuickStart Guide tucked into the front of EE:

  • Every authored work, published or unpublished, begins with the identity of the author, followed by the title of the authored work.
  • If the authored work is a book or other standalone publication, then the title goes into italics.
  • If the authored work is a part of a larger publication for which the author is not responsible (the author has done only a chapter in a book, or one article in a journal), the author’s title goes into quotation marks. Then the larger standalone publication is cited, with its title in italics.
  • If the authored work is a manuscript or an oral delivery of that unpublished paper, the author’s title again goes into quotation marks to indicate that the manuscript has not been published.

To translate all this into your specifics: you are citing an oral presentation.  The written copy has not been published. The oral presentation was audio taped and that audio has been published online. A written transcript is available from you.

The basic model for an oral presentation made before some formal entity is found in the section “Conference & Institute Papers,” 12.46–12.48. The examples for citing the syllabus are not appropriate. You’d follow the 12.48 model of citing the oral presentation itself. The pattern is this:

Author, “Title of Paper,” ID of sponsor and event, location, date (and page number if appropriate). 

Making the appropriate substitutions (using the identification of elements from the first set of bullets above) would give us this for Layer 1:

       1. David Grawrock, panelist, “Cyber Security, Information Assurance and Information Superiority,” testimony before the Asymmetric and Unconventional Threats Panel, U.S. House Armed Services Committee, 109th Cong., 1st session, 27 October 2005, prepared remarks in possession of the author; ...

Your Layer 2 then cites the published audio, for which the pattern would be this:

Creator of website, Title of Website (Place of Publication = URL : date of access), specific item of interest.

Making the appropriate substitutions, with the appropriate bridge words to introduce Layer 2, would give us this:

 … audio download available from Library of Congress, Web Archives ( : accessed 29 March 2020),  House Armed Services Committee: Schedules and Transcripts … 2005, link for Thursday, October 27.

Your Source List Entry (using a hanging indent which this canned web editor won't create) would be this:

Grawrock, David. “Cyber Security, Information Assurance and Information Superiority.” Testimony before the Asymmetric and Unconventional Threats Panel, U.S. House Armed Services Committee. 109th Congress, 1st session, 27 October 2005. Audio download available from Library of Congress, Web Archives.




Submitted bycryptorefon Mon, 03/30/2020 - 14:11

OK, i understand the switch to me being the witness as the major focus of layer 1. Two issues that i've thought about.

First, the audio doesn't play from the archived site. It looks like the audio is lost, or at least i'm unable to find it. There is a warning that audio's may not play. And the Armed Services committee for the 109th didn't store that audio on it's main site.

Second, I was representing Intel when i delivered those remarks. So that makes the first clause in layer 1

David Grawrock, Principal Engineer, representing Intel Corporation, ...

Thanks so much for helping with this. I enjoy doing the citations.