More Website Citation Dilemmas!


9 October 2014

Everything has a creator. But what do we do when we have three creators creating three different but connected things and we have to pack them all into one citation? 

A researcher has asked EE how to cite a photograph by Person X that's part of an article by Person Y, that appears at a website created by Person Z, which the author is citing many times in his research.

Because the website is being heavily used for different items, practicality calls for using the website as the Source List Entry and the lead element in the Reference Note. It can then be continually repeated, each time adding the other specific elements in a largest-to-smallest pattern—i.e.:

  • Website Creator, Title (URL : Date),
  • Author of Article, "Article Title,"
  • for [Photograph ID] by Creator;
  • any comments that are needed to clarify or evaluate the source.

To create the whole, we string these items together in the order above, with the punctuation shown. That punctuation, in case you're wondering, follows the standard rule for any type of writing. Items in a series are separated by commas. When multiple series are linked together, because each has internal commas, we use semi-colons to separate the larger groupings. For more on complex citations that involve layers of responsibility or identification, check out our QuickLesson 19.



PHOTO CREDITS: "3d push pins interconnected concept network," CanStockPhoto ( : downloaded 16 September 2014), uploaded by dny3d; used under license.